¿Sabías que cada día respiramos aproximadamente 20.000 veces? Si tomamos de referencia este número, cuando tengamos 70 años habremos aspirado al menos 600 millones de veces y en este proceso los bronquios desempeñan un rol fundamental.

¿Cómo funciona nuestro sistema respiratorio?

Cuando respiramos, el aire que entra por la nariz o la boca se dirige hacia la tráquea. Desde allí, el aire atraviesa los bronquios, que son estructuras en forma de tubo ubicadas en los pulmones y que permiten la entrada y la salida de aire en los pulmones para que podamos respirar.

Los bronquios se ramifican en conductos más pequeños conocidos como “bronquiolos”. Los bronquios son muy sensibles y reaccionan frente a factores como el ejercicio, el polvo o el humo del cigarrillo. Esto hace que los músculos que rodean los bronquios se contraigan. La combinación de la inflamación y la contracción de los músculos estrecha las vías aéreas y dificulta la respiración.

¿Qué es la bronquitis?

Uno de los problemas más frecuentes que afectan a los bronquios es la inflamación, denominada bronquitis y que puede ser de carácter agudo o crónico. Las personas que tienen bronquitis suelen toser mucosidad espesa.

  • La bronquitis aguda es muy frecuente y, a menudo, se produce a partir de un resfrío u otra infección respiratoria, suele mejorar de forma natural a la semana o a los diez días sin efectos duraderos, aunque la tos puede permanecer durante semanas.
  • La bronquitis crónica, enfermedad más grave, es una irritación o inflamación continua del revestimiento de los bronquios, en general, por fumar.

Para el tratamiento, muchas veces se utilizan medicamentos broncodilatadores que permiten que los bronquios y bronquiolos de los pulmones se dilaten, provocando una disminución en la resistencia aérea y permitiendo así el flujo de aire.

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